The education system in Indonesia has undergone significant reform over recent decades. Early educational models, still in place until the middle of the 20th century, were based on the Dutch model with segregation between Europeans and indigenous children during the early years and few students remaining in education beyond the first six years. In 1973, a presidential decree enshrined a model encompassing compulsory attendance for the first six years of primary school for all children. Ten years later, this was increased to nine years with an additional three years of junior secondary education. Both initiatives have had positive and measurable effects upon literacy rates. The overall model is now based upon a 2-2-6-3-3-structure.
a) School education
3-6 year olds attend two years of playgroup followed by two years of kindergarten. There are approximately forty-nine thousand kindergartens, of which 99.35% are privately operated.
The six years of primary education focuses upon students’ ability to read, write and gain basic numeracy skills. All students are taught to read and write in Bahasa.
Junior High School is considered an extension of primary years. Lessons are of 45 minutes duration. Subjects include: Pancasila education and citizenship, religious education, Indonesian language and literature, national and general history, English language, mathematics, natural sciences, physical and health education, social sciences and arts education.
Senior High Schools fall into two groups: SMA (Sekolah Menengah Atas) and SMK (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan). Students at SMA are preparing for university entrance while students at SMK undertake vocational studies. Classes are supplemented by extracurricular activities that are offered outside normal teaching hours. These include: scouting, school health activities, sports and first aid.
There are a significant number of Islamic secondary schools operating in Indonesia in the categories of:Madrasah Tsanawiyah(MT),Madrasah Aliyah(MA) and Madrasah Aliyah Kejuruan (MAK). There are also a small number of international schools also operating.
b) Vocational education and training (VET)
Three types of higher education are available in Indonesia: Universities, Institutes of Higher Education, and Colleges and Academies.
c) Higher education
Pre-Tertiary and Tertiary Education
University education is provided by both government and privately run organizations with both sectors being overseen by the Ministry of Education. Students may undertake courses of study leading to the completion of Associate, Bachelor, Masters and Doctoral Degrees.
Syiah Kuala University
State University of Medan
Medan State Polytechnic
Padang State Polytechnic
Indonesia Institute of Arts, Surakarta
Semarang State University
Eleventh of March University
Semarang State Polytechnic
Muhammadiyah University of Magelang
Muhammadiyah University of Purworejo
Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto
Muhammadiyah University of Semarang
Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta
Malang State University
Tenth of November Institute of Technology
Muhammadiyah University of Malang
Muhammadiyah University of Surabaya
Muhammadiyah University of Sidoarjo
Muhammadiyah University of Gresik
Muhammadiyah University of Jember
Petra Christian University
Surabaya State University
Electronic Engineering Polytechnic
Institute of Surabaya
Surabaya State Polytechnic for Shipping
Jember State Polytechnic
Indonesia Institute of Arts, Denpasar
Bali State Polytechnic
Ganesha University of Education
Nusa Cendana University
Kupang State Polytechnic for Agriculture
Kupang State Polytechnic
University of Mataram
Gorontalo State University
Manado State University
Sam Ratulangi University
Manado State Polytechnic
Makassar State University
Ujung Pandang State Polytechnic
Pangkep and the Islands State Polytechnic for Agriculture
Payakumbuh State Polytechnic for Agriculture
Padang State University
Timah Polytechnic for Manufacturing
Bangka Belitung University
University of Bengkulu
Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu
Lampung State Polytechnic
Sriwijaya State Polytechnic
Bina Nusantara University
University of Indonesia
Jakarta State University
Muhammadiyah University of Jakarta
Muhammadiyah University of Prof. Dr. HAMKA
State Polytechnic for Creative Media
Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University
Indonesia University of Education
Bandung Institute of Technology
Muhammadiyah University of Cirebon
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)
Indonesia College of Arts, Bandung
Bandung State Polytechnic
Bandung Polytechnic for Manufacturing
Gadjah Mada University
Islamic University of Indonesia
Indonesia Institute of Arts, Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta State University
Sunan Kalijaga Islamic University
Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta
Ahmad Dahlan University
Aisyiyah Nursing College of Yogyakarta
Jenderal Soedirman University
Samarinda State Polytechnic
Samarinda State Polytechnic for Agriculture
Lambung Mangkurat University
Banjarmasin State Polytechnic
Pontianak State Polytechnic
Ambon State Polytechnic
Papua State University
Atma Jaya University, Jakarta
Atma Jaya University, Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta
Universitas Kristen Krida Wacana (UKrida), Jakarta
Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana (UKSW), Semarang
International University, Jakarta
Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang (UMM), Central Java
Maranatha Christian University, Bandung
Mercu Buana University, Jakarta
Mercu Buana University, Yogyakarta
Petra Christian University, Surabaya
Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia Surakarta, Surakarta
STT Telkom, Bandung
Tarumanagara University, Jakarta
Trisakti University, Jakarta
Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta
Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Bandung
Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Jakarta
Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Salatiga
Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar, Makassar
University of Surabaya, Surabaya
YARSI University, Jakarta
HKBP Nommensen University, Medan
Methodist University of Indonesia, Medan
Swiss German University, Tangerang, West Java
Universitas Multimedia Nusantara, Gading Serpong, West Java
Universitas Bunda Mulia, Jakarta
Institut Sains & Teknologi AKPRIND, Yogyakarta
Overview of Distance Education
The history of distance education begins in Indonesia with the establishment of correspondence-based teacher training courses in Bandung, West Java during in the 1950s. This was followed by the introduction of educational radio programs for ex-service personnel whose education had been disrupted by the War of Independence. These early experiments laid the foundation for decades of slow development in Indonesian distance education. The pace of change accelerated in the 1980s, when a crash teacher-training program stimulated demand for distance learning courses. One immediate result was the foundation of the national open university—Universitas Terbuka (UT)—in 1984. During the last two decades, increasing demands for qualified teachers have continued to stimulate the delivery of distance education programs.
The use of distance learning in Indonesian secondary education dates back to the 1970s. Distance learning programs using a range of delivery modes are used both to support teaching in mainstream schools and at institutions for out-of-school children at the junior and senior secondary level. Open junior secondary schools programs have followed a group-study model in which distance education is supported by audio-cassettes, radio broadcasts, TV programs and video tapes. This tradition of innovation has continued during recent years with projects such as the Open Senior Secondary Schools initiative (see below).
The Ministry of National Education sponsors a number of SEAMEO (South-East Asian Ministers of Education Organisation) Centres that provide professional development programs for teachers in specialised fields. In addition to their own distance education courses, SEAMEO centres offer Distance Education Packages for the use of other distance education providers. SEAMEO centres in Indonesia include the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Language (SEAMEO QITEP), SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Mathematics (SEAMEO QITEP in Mathematics), the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel in Science (SEAMEO QITEP in Science).
The SEAMEO Regional Open Learning Centre (SEAMEO SEAMOLEC) provides open and distance learning programs to teachers using an integrated e-learning environment. SEAMEO SEAMOLEC also offers a range of educational radio programs.
The Universitas Terbuka provides distance education-based training programs to government agencies, state-owned enterprises and public companies. These clients can request tailored programs designed to meet their needs. UT is currently engaged in the provision of training programs for an extended range of public and private agencies. These include the Indonesia Army (TNI), Garuda, Islamic boarding schools and the Ministry of Agriculture.
There is also extensive use of distance education in non-formal education and training. Aid agencies and NGOs employ radio in the provision of non-formal community and adult education. In recent years, UNESCO has worked with P2PNFI Jayagiri–part of Directorate General of Non-Formal Education and Youth Education–to promote the creation of local content for educational radio. This work has extended to support for Community Multimedia Centres (CMC) as sites for the development of locally-created educational programs.
The major provider of distance learning in the higher education sector is the Universitas Terbuka. UT offers nearly 1,000 courses through 29 study programs. There are four faculties: Economics (FE), Social and Political Sciences (FISIP), Mathematics and Natural Science (FMIPA), Teacher Training and Educational Sciences (FKIP) and three graduate programs. The FE, FISHIP and FMIPA provide education to high school graduates. The FKIP primarily offers in-service training for practising primary and secondary school teachers. UT had 646,467 students in 2010, 83% of which were teachers taking courses through FKIP.
Most UT students are expected to study independently and teaching is primarily through correspondence. Printed learning materials are supplemented by radio and TV broadcasts, CD-ROMs and Web-based materials using the Moodle platform. As a national institution, UT collaborates with both public universities and a number of private universities across Indonesia. Universities in the provinces share their facilities with UT to provide fee-based tuition to UT students. In addition, the Distance Learning Program Unit of the Open University (UPBJJ-UT) cooperates with other Indonesian universities to develop new courses in specialised fields.
The UT is not the only distance education provider in the higher education sector. There are currently Distance Learning Centres (DLCs) at four other Indonesian universities: Udayana University, Universitas Indonesia, University of Riau and Univeristas Hasanuddin Makassar. These DLCs are part of the Global Development Network funded by the World Bank.
Administration and Finance
No information available.
Higher Education Reforms
Following the fall of the New Order in 1997, Indonesian Governments have struggled to redefine the relationship between universities and the post-Suharto state. Government policies from 1999 onwards have favoured the corporatisation of public universities. Universities have been offered greatly increased autonomy, but at the cost of accepting outcomes-based funding. Universities that take on the status of a Badan Hukum Pendidikan (BHMN) win new revenue-generating opportunities. With this benefit comes new reporting obligations in terms of accountability, quality assurance and transparent evaluation. These changes are part of the Indonesian Government’s strategy to encouraging innovation, efficiency and excellence in the higher education sector.
Future Direction of Tertiary Education
The higher education sector in Indonesia faces an uncertain future. Since 1997, public funding for universities has decreased significantly. Equally unsettling are the challenges institutions face in terms of continuing corruption and the prospect of increased competition from overseas providers. Financial pressures have increased the difficulties institutions face in stamping out corruption, a factor that threatens to undermine institutional reputations in the local educational marketplace. Universities are also disquieted by the Indonesian Government’s commitment to widener opportunities for foreign higher education providers within Indonesia. Like some other governments in different parts of the world, the Indonesian Government faces fierce opposition to its university reform agenda from both lecturers and student groups. The strength of this opposition makes it difficult to predict the ultimate outcome of the current round of proposed reforms.
Information and Communications Technology Initiatives
a) Information society strategy
b) Major e-learning initiatives
The School of Internet (SOI) Asia works in concert with a number of Indonesian universities in the provision of online distance education. The SOI Asia is an international project utilising satellite-based Internet to distribute live lectures sourced from a number of Japanese higher education institutions. Indonesian universities participating in the SOI Asia project include Brawijaya University Sam Ratulangi University, Hasanuddin University, Institute of Technology Bandung and University of Syiah Kuala. In addition to live lectures, SOI Asia broadcasts the proceedings of workshops, conferences, talks and symposia, as well as providing online access to past lectures and course materials in the fields of ICT, science and environmental studies.
UNESCO has established an e-Learning Site, hosted by the Directorate General of Higher Education. The e-Learning Site hosts a range of free learning materials aimed at school-level courses. Learning materials are available in a range of formats including streamed video lecturers and downloadable course notes.
c) Benchmarking e-learning
d) Support for OER
A number of Indonesian universities have established OCW repositories as part of OpenCourseWare Consortium. These include Universitas Indonesia (UI), Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) and the Udayana University (UNUD). In 2011, the University of Sumatera Utara OpenCourseWare was named the best new site in the OpenCourseWare Consortium. The site shares materials from 177 courses in 12 disciplines, including materials from 20 textbooks. All of the content is available both in English and Indonesian
SEAMEO SEAMOLEC is part of the SEA EduNET project. SEA EduNet includes an online repository of open education resources designed for re-use by teachers in South-East Asia.
e) Government entities
Directorate General of Higher Education
Directorate General of Non-Formal Education and Youth Education
Ministry of National Education
Ministry of Religious Affairs
National Higher Education Accreditation Board (BAN-PT)
f) Associations and networks
Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning (ASAIHL)
Pan Asia Distance Resources Access Network (PANdora)
g) Distance Education journals
Jurnal Pendidikan Terbuka Dan Jarak Jauh (Journal of Open and Distance Education)
Interesting Distance Education Initiatives
In 2006, the Anti Corruption and Governance Unit from Soegijapranata Catholic University launched an online program which aimed to increase high school students’ awareness of anti-corruption activities. The e-learning program involved case studies, digital comics, interactive games and tuition on information searching and retrieval as well as opportunities for students to post their own content on school Web sites. Overall, the project was a success. Feedback from 150 students indicated that the majority of students responded positively to e-learning experience. Almost 80% found the program beneficial for the development of their critical thinking skills. However, there were some negatives. Some teachers found the challenge of delivering an online program extremely daunting, while a small minority disliked e-learning. Another major problem was connection speeds. Students and teachers were frequently frustrated by the time it took to download digital photographs and images. The program was carried out in partnership with the Indonesian Commission on Corruption Eradication.
In 2002, the Ministry of National Education launched the Open Senior Secondary Schools project. One aim of the project was to test the feasibility of e-learning as the primary mode of delivery at the secondary school level. Open Senior Secondary Schools were established different parts of Indonesia: Bogor in West Java Province, Pemalang in Java Province, Benkalis in Riau, Surabaya and Malang in East Java, Samarinda in East Kalimantan, and Pangkep in South Sulawesi. As part of the project, e-learning materials were used to supplement printed materials in modular instruction. In the end, the Open Senior Secondary School initiative failed to move past the pilot stage, although it continued for a number of years. Part of the problem was that the infrastructure to support the wider use of e-learning in Indonesian schools did not yet exist. In 2002, less than 0.3% of the Indonesian population had Internet access. This low rate of Internet penetration was due primarily to two factors: the prohibitively high cost of Internet connections and the rudimentary telecommunications infrastructure in rural areas. In retrospect, the Open Senior Secondary Schools initiative was too ambitious.